It is important to understand that the indigenous settlements and communities were present long before the established white imposed boundaries of states and countries. Indigenous communities and family relationships extend across multiple states and regions. Keeping that in mind, below are some links to various sources that list many (not all) of the indigenous Tribes and Nations within a given area.
Little Shell Tribe of Chippewas of Montana, state recognized; petitioned 4/28/78
Swan Creek & Black River Chippewa
These lists do not necessarily include all identified indigenous communities. Nor are they the only lists that can be used in tracking down Tribal leadership and status. Understand that there are three different statuses that Tribes and Nations can hold. They are federally recognized, state recognized and unrecognized.
Federally recognized Tribes and Nations have a defined relationship with the federal government either through law (including treaties), court decisions or federal recognition process. They will also usually (not always) have land allocations making up an Indian “reservation” and are eligible for a wide variety of federal funding and participation in federal programs. Examples include Lummi Nation (by treaty), and the Mashantucket Pequot (by law-Mashantucket Pequot Settlement Act (25 USC § 1751 et. seq.).
There are many Tribes and Nations that do not have a definitive relationship with the federal government, but the states in which they are established may have developed their own relationships with some or all of the tribes within their boundaries. There will be some benefits to federal funding and participation in federal programs; however, it will be limited. The state recognized Tribes and Nations will have a defined relationship with the state that will allow them access to state funding and participation in state programs. Some state recognized Tribes and Nations can be allocated state lands for community use as reservations. Examples include the Lumbee of North Carolina and the Schaghticoke Tribal Nation of Connecticut.
There are also those indigenous communities that are not recognized by either the state or federal governments and law. While these communities exist, they do not have the benefit of having a land base, right to sovereignty and membership and access to state and federal funding and programs. These would include the Duwamish and Chinook of Washington. Many of these communities have attempted and are attempting to achieve some form of recognition, but have either been denied or are still in process. A good article appeared in the December 2016 of YES! Magazine entitled “Some “Unrecognized” Tribes Still Waiting After 130 Years“ by Gabriel Furshong. Furshong attempts to explain the plight and struggles of indigenous communities to achieve recognition.
From Rev. Susan Frederick-Gray:
Happy #Juneteenth! The oldest nationally celebrated commemoration of the ending of slavery in the United States.
Juneteenth celebrates June 19, 1865 – the day Union soldiers brought the news to Galveston, Texas that the Civil War had ended and enslaved people were free. This Emancipation Day came more than two months after the war ended and more than two years after the Emancipation Proclamation took effect on January 1, 1863. It was not until the arrival of these Union soldiers that there were sufficient forces to enforce the Proclamation in Texas.
Emancipation in many border states took even longer. It was not until December 6, 1865 with the ratification of the 13th Amendment that slavery was finally abolished across the U.S.
This is a powerful reminder of the determination of many states to protect the institution of slavery despite the law, and it echoes today in the clear attack on voting rights aimed specifically at disenfranchising Black voters and voters of color – yet another manifestation of the persistence of white supremacy and systemic racism in this country.
One of the reasons that Juneteenth has not been more well known, particularly among white Americans, is because textbooks and classroom education cover little of Black history and have taught, since the early twentieth century, that the Emancipation Proclamation ended slavery.
Today, we continue to witness predominantly white leaders seeking to silence the teaching of Black history and the history of race and racism in this country. To ignore history is to deny the reality that Black History is American History. A critical understanding of racism and white supremacy is necessary for our nation to live up to its promise.
Juneteenth is a celebration of American history in its fullness. It is a moment to center Black joy and liberation and it is also a painful reminder of America’s legacy of slavery and of justice delayed for Black Americans. Honoring this day requires more than a federal holiday. It requires a continued national reckoning on racial justice and equity. It demands honesty in education and unequivocal support for the movement to secure voting rights and democracy, and to affirm that #BlackLivesMatter.